Dyslipidaemia, marked by abnormal blood lipids, significantly increases ischemic heart disease risk. Over three decades, global dyslipidaemia rates have surged, emphasizing a pressing public health concern. High LDL, total cholesterol, and triglycerides, coupled with low HDL, are major cardiovascular risk factors. Hypercholesterolemia heightens this risk, with familial hypercholesterolemia affecting 1 in 300 individuals globally. Atherogenic dyslipidaemia, prevalent in diabetes and metabolic syndrome, further escalates cardiovascular risk. Addressing lipid abnormalities is vital in reducing cardiovascular risk in this group due to the rising diabetes prevalence.
The first line of treatment for dyslipidaemia involves lifestyle modifications, with an emphasis on dietary changes and increased physical activity. This includes a diet rich in vegetables, fruits, and whole grains while maintaining an appropriate calorie intake. Additionally, adults are recommended to engage in at least 40 minutes of moderate to intense aerobic exercise three to four times per week. Statins, which inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, are commonly used as the primary therapy for dyslipidaemia.
Regional hypercholesterolemia variations are seen, with Europe and America having higher rates than Southeast Asia and Africa. Japan and Malaysia reported high total cholesterol in Asia. The Philippines faced high TC and low HDL-C in 2013, demanding region-specific strategies. Asia Pacific (APAC) leads in dyslipidaemia research, with over 65% of trials, driven by Mainland China and South Korea. The US and Europe conducted 30% of trials. APAC trials have shorter recruitment and faster patient recruitment, showing efficiency. Europe has made significant progress, while APAC and North America have progressed steadily, albeit more slowly.
Various pharmaceutical companies, such as Abbott, Amgen, and Merck, have developed medications to combat dyslipidaemia. These medications include statins, combination drugs, and small molecules. Furthermore, ongoing Phase III trials by companies like Chong Kun Dang Pharmaceutical Corp. and Kowa Co. Ltd. are exploring new drugs for dyslipidaemia treatment, alongside innovative therapies like small interfering RNA (siRNA) and antibodies.
In summary, dyslipidaemia poses a significant global health challenge, with a rising burden over the past few decades. Lifestyle modifications, including dietary changes and exercise, play a crucial role in its management. Statins are the primary pharmaceutical approach to treating dyslipidaemia. Regional variations in hypercholesterolemia rates emphasize the need for region-specific strategies. The Asia Pacific region has seen significant involvement in dyslipidaemia research, with efficient recruitment rates, while pharmaceutical companies continue to develop and investigate new treatments, including innovative therapies.