Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is the most common cancer originating from the nasopharyngeal epithelium and is often undifferentiated. It is mainly found in Asia and Africa. Non-keratinizing nasopharyngeal carcinoma accounts for about 50% of all nasopharyngeal cancer cases. Nasopharyngeal cancer has 5-year survival rates ranging from 40-70% worldwide during the modern treatment era. In 2020, nasopharyngeal cancer had a global impact of over 130,000 cases, making it the 23rd most common cancer in the world. Men are more likely to develop nasopharyngeal cancer than women, with a male-to-female ratio of 2-3 to 1. Environmental risk factors such as smoking, alcohol, nitrosamines, genetic predisposition, and EBV infection play a large role in the prevalence of nasopharyngeal cancer in South China and Southeast Asia. Nasopharyngeal cancer is rare in the United States and Europe, with only 6% of global cases.

Nasopharyngeal cancer treatment is a complex and multifaceted technique that includes several treatment options adapted to each patient. Surgery, radiation therapy, chronic chemotherapy, target therapy, and immunotherapy are some of the therapeutic options available. Treatment choices are determined by the location of the cancer, its stage, the patient's age, and general health. The treatment plan for nasopharyngeal carcinoma is meticulously adjusted to each patient's unique situation and medical history. The goal of this personalised approach treatment is to maximise treatment efficacy while minimising side effects in order to achieve the best possible results for nasopharyngeal cancer patients.

Since 2018, the biopharma industry has launched over 200 global clinical trials for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, with Asia-Pacific accounting for 60% of the total. China and Australia have modern facilities and laws in place, putting them at the forefront of this region. More than 30% is contributed by the United States and Europe, with France and Spain playing major roles in the hosting and funding of nasopharyngeal cancer trials. The global impact of nasopharyngeal cancer highlights the need for collaboration and new therapy. Surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, targeted treatments, and immunotherapy are all revolutionizing the treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer. Antibody-Drug Conjugates (ADCs) have demonstrated encouraging outcomes, notably in cases of metastatic and relapsed nasopharyngeal cancer. To properly address the various issues faced by this malignancy, a collaborative, multidisciplinary approach is essential. Bringing together expertise and novel therapies can enhance patient outcomes and achieve revolutionary breakthroughs in nasopharyngeal cancer management.