Hemophilia, a rare X-linked congenital bleeding disorder, is characterized by a deficiency of either factor VIII (FVIII) in hemophilia A or factor IX (FIX) in hemophilia B, also known as Christmas disease. These X-linked conditions primarily affect males. Hemophilia A is more common, comprising about 80-85% of cases, while hemophilia B accounts for the rest. Individuals with hemophilia can experience prolonged bleeding, and its severity varies from mild to severe. Severe cases, marked by critically low factor VIII or factor IX levels, lead to complications like spontaneous bleeding into joints, muscles, and organs. The 2021 Global Survey by the World Federation of Hemophilia (WFH) identified 233,577 hemophilia cases worldwide, with Hemophilia A (185,318 cases) and Hemophilia B (37,998 cases). Regional variations exist, with higher rates in Europe and Southeast Asia, notably in India and China. The United States, France, and the United Kingdom also reported significant cases, primarily Hemophilia A. Severe hemophilia poses a major concern due to its associated serious bleeding events.

Since 2018, the global biopharma industry has seen a surge in clinical trials dedicated to advancing hemophilia treatment, with a significant focus on the Asia-Pacific region, notably Mainland China and Japan. These regions have emerged as robust research hubs with state-of-the-art facilities and supportive regulatory frameworks. North America and Europe, particularly the United States, Canada, the UK, Italy, France, and Spain, have played pivotal roles in advancing hemophilia research, demonstrating unwavering commitment to enhancing patient care through clinical studies. European single-country trials have shown remarkable efficiency with shorter recruitment durations, highlighting their devotion to advancing patient care. These worldwide initiatives highlight the significant emphasis placed on clinical trials and their potential to accelerate medical advancements in hemophilia treatment. Proteins, including Factor VIII and Factor IX therapies, are widely marketed for Hemophilia A and Hemophilia B patients. Phase III gene therapies (including Factor VIII and Factor IX therapies) using Adeno-associated Virus (AAV) vectors aim to provide long-term and potentially curative treatment for hemophilia patients. Additionally, bispecific monoclonal antibodies, siRNA, and cell therapies are under investigation, reflecting diverse approaches to improving patient outcomes in the battle against hemophilia.

The optimal management of hemophilia is a complex task that necessitates a multidisciplinary healthcare team with specialized expertise in diagnosis, treatment, and complication management. Treatment strategies for hemophilia encompass both prophylactic (preventative) and on-demand approaches, primarily involving the replacement of deficient clotting factors or alternative methods. The comprehensive care approach, recommended by guidelines the WFH Guidelines for the Management of Hemophilia (2020), underscores the importance of a holistic and proactive approach to hemophilia care. This approach not only aims to address immediate bleeding episodes through on-demand treatment but also emphasizes prophylactic treatment for eligible individuals to prevent bleeding events. Additionally, it promotes ongoing monitoring, including long-term safety assessments and the management of potential immune responses in those undergoing replacement therapy.