Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic liver condition characterized by T-cell lymphocyte-mediated damage to bile ducts, potentially leading to biliary cirrhosis and liver failure if left untreated. It mainly affects women, particularly in their 30s and 40s, with a much higher occurrence in females. The condition's global incidence and prevalence rates vary across regions, with higher rates in Asia Pacific and Europe. South Korea, Greece, and Canada have the highest prevalence in their respective regions.
Primary Biliary Cholangitis care begins with vaccinating those without Hepatitis A and B vaccinations, along with pneumococcal and influenza shots for liver disease patients, alongside alcohol moderation. FDA approved PBC treatments include ursodeoxycholic acid (first-line treatment) and obeticholic acid (second-line treatment). Research explores options like peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and FXR agonists, and fibroblast growth factor-19 agonists and NOX inhibitors for liver fibrosis. However, drug superiority remains unclear, necessitating extended clinical studies and deeper research into PBC's mechanisms for fresh treatment approaches.
Asia Pacific, led by Mainland China, played a significant role in the clinical trials of primary biliary cholangitis. The United States and Europe also contributed significantly, with the United States leading in North America and the United Kingdom dominating in Europe. Asia Pacific excelled in recruitment rates, becoming a robust clinical trial hub. Over the past decade, the United States saw the highest compound annual growth rate (CAGR) increase, while Asia Pacific and Europe saw more moderate growth.
Funding patterns for primary biliary cholangitis research displayed fluctuations among regions, underscoring the dynamic nature of these investments, with the United States and China at the forefront. PBC-focused companies like Abcuro Inc, Shaanxi Micot Technology Co Ltd., and HighTide Therapeutics Inc. secured significant venture funding. A variety of drugs, both individually and in combinations like (glycyrrhizin + ursodiol), are available for the treatment of PBC and related liver conditions. Global availability of these drugs underscores international efforts to combat liver diseases, including primary biliary cholangitis and its related conditions, on a global scale.
In conclusion, the disease landscape of primary biliary cholangitis poses both obstacles and opportunities. The global prevalence, unique epidemiological patterns, and shifting clinical trial dynamics underscore the need for targeted research efforts. The development of pipeline drugs, especially innovative drug classes, showcases the potential to transform PBC management, eventually improving patient outcomes and addressing the global burden of this cancer.